2. THERE and IT
Uses of there :
a. To indicate existence :
There is an interesting exhibit at the museum now
There was a lot of people at the reception
b. To point our or express place or position
There is the store I was telling you about.
Where’s Marry? There she is.
1. There is/was + singular noun
e.g. : There is akey in the drawer
There was an accident just now
There will be flood if it rains heavily
2. There are/were + plural noun
e.g. : There are student outside the classroom
There were cars in the park yesterday
There will be more visitors on Sunday
Compare There is a lot of ink spills from the bottis
There are a lot of goats in the held
Uses of It :
a. As a pronoun :
He bought a gardenia and gave it to me
b. In expressions of time, weather, and distance
It is 9.00 o’clock.
It is boiling hot today
It is two block to the post office
c. In expression of identifition :
It was Hasby that won the race.
d. In impersonal expressions :
It is true that you should help the poor.
It is strange that she didn’t tell you.
This ………………………………………. These
That ………………………………………. Those
E.g. : This is a dictionary you want
This dictionary is mine
Those are things you want
Those things are expensive
Mary wants these books, John wants those books.
Note : This/that followed by singular noun, these/those by plural noun.
This/these close to the speaker, that/those farther from the speaker
1. The Indefinite articles
a. We use before words beginning with a consonant sound and an before beginning with a vowel sound
A computer, a windows, a tree, a man, a woman
An apple, an island, an hour
b. We use a or an before a cout nount that we mention for the first time
You need a visa to visit Russia. He rides to work on a bicycle.
c. We use a or an with professions..
Ahmet was a dancer jem is an artist
d. We use a with expression of quantity.
A lot of people, o dozen eggs, a couple of years
e. We use a with some numbers
f. A hndred, a thousand, amilliom
2. The definite article
The definite article is the. The is used without both singular and plural nouns, and with masculine and feminine nouns. It dosen’t change, but we don’at always use it.
a. We use the for things that are unique
The sun,the moon, the 21st century
b. We use the when we mention something a second time
You need a visa to visit Moscow. The vise cost about $90.
c. We use the with superlatives
Mt. Erebus is the highest mountain in Europe.
d. We use the with first, second, etc
This is the second time 1 have met her
e. We use the with groups of people and families.
The old, the poor, the unhappy, the Smiths, The Fishers.
f. We use the with geographical names.
The Gobi Desert, the Himalayas, The China Sea