PLURAL FORM
A plural form of a noun is regularly formed by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the singular.

1. Most nouns add’s’to the singular form:
a student
girl
page
two students
girls
pages
chair
tree
month
chairs
trees
months

2 If the singular form ends in the letters s, x, z. ch. or sh, the plural is formed by adding ‘es’ to the singular.
bus
class
quiz
buses
classes
quizzes
brush
church
box
brushes
churches
boxes

3. If the singular form ends in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by changing ‘y’ to i’ and adding ‘es’
lady ladies duty duties

If the singular form ends in ‘y’ preceded by a vowel, the plural is made by adding only s
day days monkey monkeys

4. The plural of some nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant, is made by adding ‘es’
potato
hero potatoes heroes mango
tomato mangoes tomatoes

The plural of nouns ending in o, preceded by a vowel, is made by adding ‘s’.
folio folios radio radios

5. With some nouns, final ‘f is changed to V before adding s or es.
knife
wife
self
knives
wives
selves
life
leaf
shelf
lives
leaves
shelves

Exceptions :
safe
roof
proof
safes
roofs
proofs
belief
chief
grief beliefs
chiefs
griefs

6. The following nouns have irregular forms; that is, s or es is not added to the singular
man
woman
ox
goose
fish
*deer
*sheep men
women
oxen
geese
fish
deer
sheep foot
child
tooth
mouse feet
children
teeth
mice

7. Nouns that ordinarily used with the plural verb: scissors, tongs, pants, trousers, slacks, shorts, shocks, shoes, spectacles.
8. Nouns that are used with the singular form of the verb: The United States, news, measles, mumps, mathematics, statistics, economics, politics, physics, acoustics, politics.

7. PRONOUN, GENDER
Subject Object Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
We Us Our Ours
They Them Their Theirs
He Him. His His
She Her Her Hers
It It Its –

I am John My name is John
You are Alice Your name is Alice
She is Mary Her name is Mary
He is Hasby His name is Hasby
It is a cat Its name is Blacky
They have a car That is their car
We have a house This is our house

Alfred is a philatelist.
He collects a lot of stamps.
His father sometimes gives him foreign stamps.
The stamp album is on the shelf. That is his.

NOTE. Possessive adjective is fallowed by ‘noun’.

GENDER

MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
Boy
brother
father gentleman husband
king
man
nephew
sir
son
uncle girl
sister
mother
lady
wife
queen
woman
niece
madam daughter
aunt Bridegroom
grandfather
great-uncle
stepfather
actor
duke
emperor
god
heir
hero
prince
waiter
widower Bride
Grandmother
great-aunt
stepmother
actress
duchess
empress
goddess
heiress
heroine
princess
waitress
widow

8. FORM and FUNCTION OF ‘BE’
Form of ‘be’, is, am, are, was, were, to be, be, been, being.

Full forms Short Forms Negative Forms Interrogative Forms
1 am I’m I’m not Am I……?
She is
He is
It is
This/that is
There is She’s
He’s
It’s
That’s
There’s She’s not / She isn’t He’s not / He isn’t
It’s not / It isn’t
That’s not / this isn’t There’snot / there isn’t Is she……?
Is he…….?
Is it……..?
Is that/this …..?
Is there …………?
You are
We are
They are
These/those are
There are You’re
We’re
They’re

There’re You’re not / You aren’t We’re not / We aren’t They’re not/They aren’t These/Those aren’t
There’renot/There aren’t Are you ……….?
Are we …………?
Are they……….?
Are these/those…..?
Are there…………?

Function of ‘be” :
1. As a main verb:
a. be + a noun Bill is a manager
b. be + an adjective He is intelligent
c. be + a prep. Phrase He is in his room

2. As an auxiliary verb: ,
a. continuous verb tenses He is taking case of some guests
b. passive sentence I was born in Mojokerto

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About englishcyber4u

1 want to have useful life for people around me..and 1 want to write till 1 die..

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