A plural form of a noun is regularly formed by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the singular.
1. Most nouns add’s’to the singular form:
2 If the singular form ends in the letters s, x, z. ch. or sh, the plural is formed by adding ‘es’ to the singular.
3. If the singular form ends in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by changing ‘y’ to i’ and adding ‘es’
lady ladies duty duties
If the singular form ends in ‘y’ preceded by a vowel, the plural is made by adding only s
day days monkey monkeys
4. The plural of some nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant, is made by adding ‘es’
hero potatoes heroes mango
tomato mangoes tomatoes
The plural of nouns ending in o, preceded by a vowel, is made by adding ‘s’.
folio folios radio radios
5. With some nouns, final ‘f is changed to V before adding s or es.
6. The following nouns have irregular forms; that is, s or es is not added to the singular
7. Nouns that ordinarily used with the plural verb: scissors, tongs, pants, trousers, slacks, shorts, shocks, shoes, spectacles.
8. Nouns that are used with the singular form of the verb: The United States, news, measles, mumps, mathematics, statistics, economics, politics, physics, acoustics, politics.
7. PRONOUN, GENDER
Subject Object Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun
I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
We Us Our Ours
They Them Their Theirs
He Him. His His
She Her Her Hers
It It Its –
I am John My name is John
You are Alice Your name is Alice
She is Mary Her name is Mary
He is Hasby His name is Hasby
It is a cat Its name is Blacky
They have a car That is their car
We have a house This is our house
Alfred is a philatelist.
He collects a lot of stamps.
His father sometimes gives him foreign stamps.
The stamp album is on the shelf. That is his.
NOTE. Possessive adjective is fallowed by ‘noun’.
MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE
father gentleman husband
8. FORM and FUNCTION OF ‘BE’
Form of ‘be’, is, am, are, was, were, to be, be, been, being.
Full forms Short Forms Negative Forms Interrogative Forms
1 am I’m I’m not Am I……?
There is She’s
There’s She’s not / She isn’t He’s not / He isn’t
It’s not / It isn’t
That’s not / this isn’t There’snot / there isn’t Is she……?
Is that/this …..?
Is there …………?
There are You’re
There’re You’re not / You aren’t We’re not / We aren’t They’re not/They aren’t These/Those aren’t
There’renot/There aren’t Are you ……….?
Are we …………?
Function of ‘be” :
1. As a main verb:
a. be + a noun Bill is a manager
b. be + an adjective He is intelligent
c. be + a prep. Phrase He is in his room
2. As an auxiliary verb: ,
a. continuous verb tenses He is taking case of some guests
b. passive sentence I was born in Mojokerto