. PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION (be + Verb III)
TENSES ACTIVE PASSIVE
Present tense

Past Tense

Present Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense

Present Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Cont. T.

Past Perfect Continuous T

Future Tense
She writes a letter

She wrote a letter

She has written a letter

She had written a letter

She is writins a letter

She was writino a letter

She has been writing a letter

She had been writinq a letter

She wilf write a letter
The letter is written bv her

The letter was written by her

The letter has been written by her

The letter had been written by her

The letter is being written by her

The letter was being written by her
The letter has been being written by her
The letter had been being written by her
The letter will be written by her

16. QUANTIFIER

Countable Noun (CN) Uncountable Noun (Ue N)
All
Many
A large number of
A small number of
A great many of
A great number of
A lot of
Plenty of All
Much
A large amount of
A small amount of
A great deal of
A large quantity of
A lot of
Plenty of

A few A little
Some Some
Several –
Every –
Each –
Both –
Neither of
None None

NOTE AND COMPARE :

1. All sugar is sweet.
All of Mrs. Tina’s sugar is in the cupboard.
2. All cars have wheels.
All of the guests’ cars have been identified.
3. All glasses are breakable
All glasses are full.
All of those glasses are full.
4. A glass of milk. Two glasses of milk
A cup of coffee Three cups of coffee
A bottle of ink Ten bottle of ink
A piece of paper twenty pieces of paper
A loaf of bread two loaf of bread
A slice of meat four slices of meat, etc.

17. VERY,TOO, ENOUGH

John is very tired. Therefore, he can’t study well.
= John is too tired to study.
The food is very hot. I can’t eat it.
= The food is loo hot to eat.

The food is hot. I can eat it.
= The food is hot enough to eat.
• There’s too much wafer in the mixture.
• There’re too many people inside the room.

18. COMPARISON
1. The some as. different from, like, the same—as, as—as
1. My pencil is new. Your pencil is new.
My pencil is the same as yours.
My pencil and yours are the same.
2. John’s coat is large. Paul’s coat is small.
John’s coat is different from Paul’s.
John’s coat and Paul’s are different.
3. John is very similar to his father.
John is like his father. John and his father are alike.
4. John’s new car looks almost the same as Paul’s.
John’s new car looks lake Paul’s.
5. This book is not so (as) interesting as that one
6. My pencil is as long as yours (as + adj./adv. + asl= se…….
My pencil is the same length as yours (the same + Noun Form + as)

*Ali was born in 1970. Ari was bom in 1970.
Ali is as old as An = All is the same age as Ari

NOTE:
Adjective form Long / short
Expensive / cheap
Good / bad
Thick / thin
Deep / shallow
Hard / soft
Heavy / light
Far/near
Noun form
–length
–price
–quality
–thickness
–depth
–hardness
–weight
–distance
Adjective Form
wide / narrow
high / low
tall / short
old /young
big / small
fast / slow
red / blue /black
much / isttle
Noun Form ….
–width
–height
–height
–age
–size
–speed
–colour
–quantity/amount

II. Degrees of Comparison
1. Use the suffix-er= lebih…, (for comparative form) and suffix-est = paling…. (for superlative form)
a. Adjective and adverbs of one syllable.
Tall
Soon quick
big clear
nice fast
hard

b. Adjectives that end in –y (2 syllables)
Busy
Lazy
*clever easy
pretty
narrow happy
early
lonely

2. Use the word “more—”= lebih….. (for comparative form) and the word “the most-
paling ……(for Superlative form)
a. Most adjectives and adverbs of two or more syllables.
Often useful careful
Modem selfish fluent
Honest important necessary interesting
b. Adverbs; that have suftJx-ly.
Carefully clearly easily
Rapidly beautifully quickly

3. Irregular forms:

Good / well
Bad / badly/ill
Far

many/much
little
old
Lebih….
– better
– worse
– farther
– further
– more
– less
– older/elder
Paling….
– beast
– most
– farthest
– furthest
– morst
– lest
– oldest/eldest

19. ELLIPTICAL SENTENCE
1 Positive Sentence, Use: so. Too

Pattern :

Examples:
1. Mrs Ani is a nurse and Miss Ita is a nurse
Mrs Ani is a nurse and Miss Ita is too
Mrs Ani is a nurse and so is Miss Ita
2. I have finished the work and he has too
I have finished the work and so has he.
3. I have a new car and he does too.
4. She read novel and f did too
5. He’s been to Boston and my father has too

2. Negotive Sentence. Use: either, nether

Pattern :

Examples:
1. He won’t come. I won’t come
He won’t come and I won’t either.
He won’t come and neither will I.
2. Amir never comes late to school and neither does Adi
3. They didn’t attend the meeting and I didn’t either.
NOTE : Alan can play violin. Rony can’t play violin
= Alan can play violin but Rony can’t.
He also learns English
He will also learn English.

20. QUESTION TAG
PATTERN:

Examples
1. Positive Statement
a. He is a good player, isn’t he?
b. That lady can sew a dress, can’t she?
c. I am still here, aren’t I ?
d. She likes cooking, doesn’t she?
e. Everybody mado mistakes, didn’t they?
f. There was a vase in here, wasn’t there?
g. That is my painting, isn’t it?
h. She put it here, didn’t she?
2. Negative Statement
a. The students won’t be there, will they?
b. The children wear no hat, do they?
c. Nobody saw him, did they?
d. I never heard it, did I?
e. She’s not Inished yet, has he?
3. Command / Request form
a. Stop over there/will you?
b. Please have a seat, won’t you?
c. Let’s go swimming, shall we?
d. Don’t bother me. won’t you?
4. Response of Question Tag
Ali didn’t come, did he? Yes, he did . means: disagree
Amir didn’t come, did’he? No, he didn’t, means: agree.

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About englishcyber4u

1 want to have useful life for people around me..and 1 want to write till 1 die..

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