I have a pen here on the table. I have another one at home.
This egg is too small. Can you give me another?
(another = another one = another egg) CONDITIONAL SENTENCE (TYPE-1)
1. If I have time, I will go
2. We will start early if the weather is fine.
3. If there aren ‘t any buses, you may take a taxi
4. Can we get there on time if we do not take a taxi?
5. Drink this water if you are thirsty, (command sentence)
6. I will come if it doesn ‘t rain.
= I will come unless it rains. UNLESS = IF –NOT
a. We form the affirmative imperative with the base form of the verb with the second person singular and plural.
Drive faster! Finish your vegetables ! Open your books !
b. We form the first person plural affirmative imperative with Let’s (Let us) and the base form of the verb.
Let’s run ! Let’s give ht r a surprise !
c. We form the negative imperative with Don’t.. …or Let’s not……..
Don’t shoot! Let’s not do any more work today.
“Admiration” digunakan untuk menyatakan kekaguman.
Ada dua cara membuat admiration :
1. How + Adj
How fantastic the temple is.
How clever you are !
2. The other
One of those two guests is American. The other is Indian.
(the other = the other one = the other guest)
3. The others
Two students are still outside.
The others are already in the room
(the others = the other students)
Some animals live on land, others in water.
(others = other animals)
5. A few others, some others, many others, etc
A number of cars in our country were made in Italy, a few others were made in Sweden,
some others were made in France, and many others were made in Japan.
6. Each other
Although we were in the same bus, we didn’t talk because we didn’t each other.
7. One another
They live in the same town and often visit one another.
8. Every other……… day / week (== selang se …)
9. The other day (= beberapa hari yll / tak lama berselangj
Infinitive adalah bentuk dasar dari VERB, atau dengan kata lain VERB-1. Meskipun demikian, verb-1 tidak selamanya berfungsi sebagai infinitive. VER-1 disebut infinitive apabila tidak diikuti oleh suffixes (akhiran) -s, -es, atau -ies.
Infinitive dibedakan menjadi dua:
1. Infinitive with to
a. Untuk menyatakan maksud /tujuan
She goes to visit her grandfather.
We want to buy some books.
They play to have a fun.
He goes to Malang to visit hisgrafather.
We want him to buy some books.
They play the game to have fun.
b. Digunakan setelah Adjective
Adjectives can be used, such as: glad, sad, worried, angry, pleased, delighted,
disappointed, shocked, afraid, unable, willing, sure, anxious, able, eager, etc.
□ The teacher was angry to hear the news.
□ She is willing to help us.
□ I was sorry when / because I heard the bad news.
= / was sorry to hear the bad news.
□ He is ready to go.
□ I am glad to meet you.
□ To understand this lesson is easy.
It is easy to understand this lesson.
c. Digunakan setelah Question words
They told me what to do. .
She wonders how to program the computer.
We don’t know where to go.
2. Infinitive without to
a. Setelah modal auxiliaries.
She will come
They cannot enter the room.
We must leave as soon as possible.
b. Setelah physical perception.
I saw him cross the road.
The manager noticed the workmen repair the car.
We heard the lady sing a song.
The boys watch the man demonstrate his skill.
c. Setelah kata kerja tertentu (certain verb)
We let him go.
The naughty boy made her cry.
She helps her mother prepare dinner.
I would rather stay at home than go outside.
They had better read books than novel.
Prepositions are words we often use before nouns or pronouns. They have a grammatical function but carry little meaning of their own. We can also use prepositions after some adjectives and verbs.
1. Prepositions of time and date
a. We use at with the time you read from a watch or a clock.
He arrives at seven, (at noon, at 5:15, at half past five, at night).
b. We use on with days.
She left on Tuesday, (on her birthday, on New Year’s Day, on May 31)
c. We use in with seasons, months, and years.
in the summer, in March, in 1999, in the morning
d. We use since for the start of a period of time.
She’s been here since six o’clock, (since I arrived, since 1998)
e. We use for to indicate the length of a period of time.
He’s known Lucy for ten years. (for half an hour, for ages)
f. We use during to indicate some time between the start and the end of a period.
It happened during the night, (during her time is Seoul, during the meal)
g. We use after to indicate a time later than the end of a particular time.
I learned to walk a year after I was born.
h. We use before to indicate a time earlier than a particular time.
I learned to swim before I learned to walk.
2. Prepositions of place
a. We use at with the meaning of “inside” or “just outside.”
at home, at the office, at school, at a bus stop
b. We use in, meaning inside, with nouns.
in a town, in a street, in a room, in a swimming pool
c. We use into to show movement from outside to inside.
He ran into the bank.
d. We use above and over to mean in a higher position than something else.
The second floor is above the first floor.
e. We use below and under to mean in a lower position than something else.
The second floor is below the third floor.
f. We use between, behind, in front of, next to, across from, and opposite to indicate relative position. Thihk of some people in a car :
Passenger in the back seat of the car sit behind the driver.
A passenger in the front seat sits next to the driver.
With three passengers in the back seat. the middle one sits between the other two.
Cars in the UK and the US drive on opposite sides of the road.
3. Propositions after adjectives
Some common adjectives that can be followed by a preposition include :
afraid of, bad at/for, fond of, good at/for, interested in, pleased with, ready for, scared of, tired of
My sister’s afraid of spiders.
Galileo was interested in astronomy.
4. Prepositions after verbs
Some common verbs that can be followed by a preposition include:
ask for/about, believe in, depend on, hope for, succeed in, think of/about, wait for
I don’t believe in a astrology.
Can you ask for the check ?
5. Prepositions before gerunds
We often precede a gerund (the -ing form of a verb) with a preposition.
We has a pizza after going to the movies.
He locked at the postmark before opening the letter.
The plane crashed while Hying to Medan.
27. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
1. The book is on the table. It is mine.
= The book on the table is mine.
2. The flowers are in the vase. I like them.
= I like the flowers in the vase.
3. The boy is my friend. He has long hair.
= The boy with long hair is my friend.
4. I bought a blouse. It has no sleeves.
= I bought a blouse without sleeves.
28. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
1. I know the man. The man helped you.
= I know the man who helped you. (who =yang, disebut Relative Pronoun)
2. I know the girl. You met her at Sanrio yesterday.
= / know the girl (whom/that) you met at Sanrio yesterday.
3. They bought a cafit cost Rp. 10 million.
= They bought a car which/that cost Rp. 10 million.
4. The film wasn’t very good. We saw it last night.
= The film we saw last night wasn’t very good.
29. NOUN CLAUSE
Look at the following examples;
1. He told me the news. (noun)
2. He told me that he was ill. (noun clause)
3. I don’t know her address, (noun)
4. I don’t know where she lives, (noun clause)
NOUN CLAUSE merupakan jawaban dari pertanyaan dengan kata tanya WHAT.
Noun Clause dari kalimat-kalimat diatas merupakan anak kalimat pengganti noun / noun phrase.
1. Noun Clause setelah kata kerja: tell, say, hope, ask, know, think, believe, expect, assume, guest, hear, understand, etc.
Examples: He says (that) he is ill.
(-) He doesn’t say that he is ill.
(?) Does he say that he is ill?
2. Noun Clause setelah adjective (kata sifat ungkapan perasaan): happy, pleased, glad, sorry,sure, certain, afraid, surprise, etc.
Examples: She is sorry (that) she can’t come.
I am afraid (that) I missed the train.
3. Noun Clause yang dimulai dengan KATA TANYA: why, when, where, who, what, etc.
Examples: I don’t know why he can’t come.
Please tell her which book she wants.
Can you tell me what her name is?
Where is he? – I don’t know where he is.
Bila Main Clause dalam bentuk Present Tense, anak kalimat (noun clause) bisa dalam bentuk ‘tense’ yang lainnya.
Examples: I know he is busy right now.
I know he was busy yesterday.
I know you will go abroad. Etc.
Bila Main Clause dalam bentuk ‘Past Tense’ maka Noun Clause harus daiam bentuk Past Tense
Examples: I knew he was ill.
I knew he would go abroad.
I knew they had come two days before.