. MODAL Auxiliaries
Can / could
May / might
Must / had to
Shall / should
Will / would
a. Menyatakan akan [be going to / future time]
I will go to the party tonight
We will leave for Sydney tomorrow
a. Menyatakan kehendak atau tekad
I shall do whatever you think best
b. Menyatakan suatu Janji
You shall receive your diploma in June
a. Menyatakan kemampuan / ability [=be able to]
Kathleen can speak Spanish, but she cannot speak Russian.
b. Menyatakan/ kemungkinan / possibility
It can snow in April
c. Menyatakan ijin / permission
Can I borrow your dictionary?
a. Menyatakan ijin / permission
May I sit here?
b. Menyatakan kemungkinan / possibility
It may rain, according to the weather report.
a. Menyatakan kebutuhan / necessity
We must eat nutrious food.
b. Menyatakan kesimpulan / conclusion
The door is locked;he must not be at home.
I failed the examination; You must think I am stupid.
c. Menyatakan suatu keharusan yang kuat
Man must eat to live
The time is up, we must go
d. Menyatakan suatu larangan / prohibition
You mustn’t smoke in class
You musn’f walk on the grass.
6. Should =: ought to [seharusnya]
a. Menyatakan suatu keharusan/kewajiban
He should study more
b. Menyatakan suatu pendapat/saran
Rany says they should go
c. Menyatakan suatu harapan
He took dancing lesson for years. He should be an e xcellent dancer.
NOTE : Bentuk lampau dari Modal, lebih menyatakan bentuk halus/sopan dalam request/command
USAGE OF TENSES
1. The Simple Present Tense
a. To show a habitual action, often with adverbs: usually, often, always, generally, sometimes, Everyday, once a week, etc.
E.g.: I usually get up at five o’ctock in the morning.
Tuty always studies very hard.
b. To state general truth.
E.g.: The earth moves around the sun
The sun rises in the east. The sun doesn’t shine at night.
c. To express a future action planned/almost habitual.
E.g.: The plane leaves for London at 12.30 p.m.
She departs for Sydney tomorrow morning.
2. The Present Continuous Tense
a. To show an action happening at the moment of speaking.
E.g. : She is not crying now.
We are studying English now.
b. To show an action in the near future.
E.g. : Don’t worry, we are coming soon.
c. To talk about changing situation.
E.g.: The population of the worid is increasing rapidly.
It is getting dark
Is your English getting better?
3. The Present Perfect Tense
a. To express a past action where the time of the action is not specified.
E.g. : We have given it away to someone.
Has she written to you?
b. To express an action begun in the past but which is still being earned on in the present.
E.g. : She has been here for more than an hour.
We have lived here since we were born.
c. To express an action completed recently.
E.g. : The concert has just begun.
They have already left.
4. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
a. To ask or say how long something has been happening.
The action began in the past and still happening or has just stopped.
E.g. : It has been raining for two hours
How long have you been waiting for me?
I’ve been watching TV since 2:00 p.m.
5. The Simple Past Tense
a. To show an action completed in the past, usually with a time expression or the mention of a place.
Eg. : The train arrived twenty minutes ago.
We stopped at Cairo for a rest.
b. To show a past habit.
E.g. : She a/ways gave us sweets when we went there.
c. To express a series of past action.
E.g.: He walked to the car, opened the door, got into the car, and drove away.
6. The Past Continuous Tense
a. To say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time in the past.
E.g. : What were you doing at 10:00 last night?
b. To show what was happening at the moment that past action took place or was completed.
Eg. : They were talking when I came into the room.
I saw Jim in thepesrk. He was sitting on the grass and reading a novel.
c. To show two past continuous action happening simultanrously.
E.g. : While I was sleeping my brother was still studying.
He was listening to the radio while I was studying.
7. The Past Perfect Tense
8. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
9. The Simple Future Tense
a. Pattern: Will + Verb 1
– To say what we decided to do something at the time of speaking.
E.g : Oh, I left tne door open. I will go and shut it.
I’m too tiled to walk home. I think I will take a taxi.
– Offering to do some”hing
E.g : That bag looks heavy. I will help you with it.
– Promising to do something
E.g : Thank you for lending me the money. I will pay you back on Friday.
I promise I’ll call you as soon as I arrive:
– Asking someone to do something
E.g. : Will you shut the door, please?
Will you please be quiet?
b. Pattern: be going to + Verb I
– To say what we have already decided to do
Eg.: I’m too tired. I’m going to continue this work tonight.
– To say what we think will happen, usually there is something in the present situation that makes the speaker sure about what will happen.
Eg.: Look at the black clouds. It is going to rain, isn’t it?
10. The Future Continuous Tense
11. The Future Perfect Tense
12. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
13. The Past Future Tense
14. The Past Future Continuous Tense
15. The Past Future Perfect Tense
16. The Pas/ Future Perfect Continuous Tense
TIME EXPRESSION / ADVERB OF TIME
No TENSES ADVERB OF TIME
1 The Simple Present Tense
Always (=all of the time), usually (=most of the time), Often (=much of the time), sometimes (=some of the time), seldom (-almost never), never (=not at any time), in the morning, on Sundays, etc.
2 The Present Continuous Tense
Now,at this moment, right now, current time
3 The Present Perfect Tense
Already, just, yet, for…, since
4 The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
5 The Simple Past Tense
Yesterday, jast…., just now, ago,formely
6 The Past Continuous Tense
While + PCT, when + Past Tense
7 The Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect + before + Simple Past
Simple past + after + Past Perfect
8 The Simple Future Tense
Tomorrow, tonight, soon, next