1. Indicates the possession.
E.g.: This bag belongs to Anwar. This bag is Anwar’s.
That black belt is Aris’.
The boys’ club.
The boy’s book.
My roommate’s plan.
2. The abbreviation of ‘is’.
E.g.: Ani’s re&ding a book in the library
She’s a smart girl.
She’s elected the president.
3. The abbreviation of ‘has’
E.g.: Father’s come from Boston
He’s collected a lot of interesting stamps so far.
NOTE: The men’s clothes ………. The clothes of the men
The hill top ………. The top of the hill
The desk drawer ………. The drawer of the desk.
4. To form the plural of numbers and letters.
E.g. : She earned 3 A’s and 2 B’s.
There are fours’s in the word ‘possess’.
Mind your p’s and q’s.
Walk in two’s, not three’s.
10. SOME, ANY, NO
1. SOME is used in affirmative statements only, but is used in both affirmative and negative
E.g.: Ho wants some crackers.
He has some money.
Do (Don’t) you want some drink?
2. ANY and NO are used with both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns express absence of quantity.
E.g.: There aren’t any sandwiches left. (any + CN)
= There are no sandwiches left.
There isn’t any coffee left. (any + Uc.N)
= There is no coffee left.
Adrian does not have any toys.
= Adrian has no toys.
(+) He wants some ink/books
(?) Do you want any ink/books?
(-) I do not want any ink / books.
(-) want no ink/books.
□ SOME dapat digunakan dalam kalimat interrogative (?), jika Si penanya yakin/ mengira akan memperoleh jawaban yes dari pertanyaannya itu, misalnya:
1. Dalam suatu restaurant anda bertanya kepada pelayannya:
Do you have some coffee?
Do you have some tea?
2. Dalam suatu suatu toko buku dan alat tulis anda bertanya:
Do you have some ink?
Do you have some rulers?
11. ADJECTIVE and ADVERB
AN ADVERB tells us more about a noun. We use adjectives before nouns and after a few verbs (especially be):
• Tom is a careful driver.
• Be quiet, please!
• was disappointed that my exam results were so bad.
For adjective after specia’ verb look ‘linking verb’.
Order of adjectives
In most cases, if more than one adjective is used to qualify a noun, the adjectives are placed in the following order :
: large, small
: expensive, happy
: old middle-aged
: round, flat
: red, yellow, green
: paper, leather, plastic
: Japanese, African
: laptop, sports, toy—x
A large, happy, middle-aged, African elephant
A red, plastic, Japanese toy car
AN ADVERB tells us more about a verb. An adverb tells us in what way someone does something or in what way something happens:
• Tom drove carefully along the narrow road. (not drove careful).
• Speak quietly, please! (not speak quiet)
She speaks perfect English (adjective + noun)
She speaks English perfectly. (verb + object + adverb)
Kinds of adverbs
There are many kinds of adverbs.
a. Adverbs of manner : well, quickly, easily
b. Adverbs of time : now, today, then
c. Adverbs of frequency : always, never, often
d. Adverbs of degree : too, very, enough, quite
e. Interrogative adverbs : where, when, which
Many Adverbs are made from an Adjective + -ly:
Jack is a very fast runner. Jack can run very fast.
Ann is a hard worker. Ann works hard. (not works hardly)
Hardly = almost not
The train was late. I got up Iate this morning.
(lately = recently)
An adverb of manner usually follows a verb and its direct object, if any.
VERB DIRECT OBJECT ADV. OF MANNER ADV. OF PLACE ADV. OF TIME
his car rapidly
carefully carefully in class
in the city everywhere yesterday
12. LINKING VERBS
“Be” in “be + an adjective” can be replaced by ‘Linking verb’ : feel, look, smell, sound, taste, appear, seem, become (get, turn, grow)
E.g.; The food is good…. can be …… The food smells good
You are pretty …. can be …… You look pretty
Compare: My boss looked angry.
He looked at me angrily.