USAGE OF TENSE
- 1. The simple Present Tense
- a. To show a habitual action, often with adverbs : usually, often, always, generally, sometimes, everyday, once a week. Etc.
E.g. : I usually get up five o’clock in the morning
Tuty always studies very hard
- b. To state general truth
E.g. : The earth moves around the sun
The sun rice in the east, the sun doesn’t shine at night
- c. To express a future action planed almost the sun.
E.g. : The plane leaves for London at 12.30 p.m.
She departs for Sydney tomorrow morning
- 2. The Present Continuous Tense
- To show an action happening at the moment of speaking
E.g. : She is not crying now.
We are studying English now
- To show an action in the near future.
E.g. : Don’t worry, we are coming soon
- To talk about changing situation.
E.g. : The population of the world is increasing rapidly
It is getting dark
Is your English getting better?
- 3. The Present Perfect Tense
- To express a past action where the time of the action is not specified
E.g. : We have given it away to someone
We have lived here since we were born
- To express an action begun in the past but which is still being carried on in the present
E.g. : She has been here for more than an hour
We have lived here since we were born
- To express an action completed recently
E.g. : The concert has just begun
They have already left
- 4. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
- a. To ask or say how long something has been happening
The action begun in the past and still happening or has just stoped.
E.g. : It has been raining for two hours
Ho long have you been waiting for me?
I’ve been watching TV since 2:00 p.m.
- 5. The Simple Past Tense
- To show an action completed in the past, usually with a time expression or the mention of a place.
E.g. : The rain arrived twenty minute ago.
We stopped at Cairo for a rest.
- b. To show a past habit
E.g. : She always give us sweets when we went there.
- c. To express a series of past action
E.g. : He walked to the car, opened the door, got in to the car, and drove away.
- 6. The Past Continuous Tense
- a. To say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain in the past.
E.g. : What were you doing at 10:00 last night?
- b. To show what was happening at the moment that past action took place or was completed.
E.g. : They were talking when I came in to the room.
I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass and reading a novel.
- c. To show two past continuous action happening simultaneously.
E.g. : While I was sleeping my brother was still studying
He was listening to the radio while I was studying
- 7. The Past Perfect Tense
- a. To show which of the two actions happened first, often, words like ‘after’, ‘just’ and ‘when’ occur in this usage :
I had just finished the letter when my mother came into the room
The message had reached him before he left the office
After he had locked the door, he left his house.
- b. To show what had been done by a certain point of time in the past :
By twelve o’clock, we had finished packing our luggage
She had learnt to cook and sew by the time that she was seven
- c. To express conditional sentence of the ‘ impossible type’ :
If you had old me, I would have helped you.
- d. To express an unfulfilled wish :
I wish that I had used my time more fruitfully
If only he hadn’t gone home, we would have helped us so much.
- e. With ‘as if’ :
She ate as if she had not eaten for along time.
- 8. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The past perfect continuous tense has the same functions as the Past Perfect tense, but in the former the emphasis is on the continuity of the past action :
The doorbell had been ringing for quite a while before anyone came to answer it.
They had just been talking about him when he walked in.
- 9. The Simple Future Tense
- a. Pattern : Will + Verb I
– To say what we decided to do something at the time of speaking.
E.g. : Oh, I left the door open. I will go and shut it
I’m too tired to walk home. I thing I will take a taxi.
– Offering to do something
E.g. ; That bag looks heavy. I will help you with it.
– Promising to do something
E.g. : Thank you for leading me the money. I will pay you back of Friday.
I promise I’ll call you as soon as I arrive
– Asking someone to do something
E.g. : Will you shut the door, please ?
Will you please be quiet ?
- b. Pattern : be going to + Verb I
– To say what we have already decided to do
E.g. : I’m too tired. I m going to continue this work tonight.
– To say what we think will happen, usually there is something in the present situation that makes the speaker sure about what will happen
E.g. : Look at the black clouds. It is going to rain, isn’t it?
10. The future continuous Tense
- With a time expression, to show an action taking place at or up to a certain time in the future :
It will be snowing when we reach London
This time next week, they will be sailing across the Atlantic ocean
- With or without a time expression, to show a future action that is not planned at all :
We’d better hurry, she will be waiting for us at the gate.
I will be going to the public library in the afternoon.
11. The Future Perfect Tense
- a. To express as action which will be completed by a certain time in the future. It is always used with a time expression :
We shall have arrived at Manila by Monday
The show will have started by the time that we reach there
- b. To express an assumption :
He will have realized how difficult the task is.
He is very late, the others will have gone by now
- c. In the passive form, when we wish to slow that something will have been done to the subject by a certain future date :
The letters will have been sent by now.
The television set will have been repaired by tomorrow.
- d. In the passive form, when we do not know or wish to know the doer of the action :
Without their support, his business will have been wrecked
If there has been an accident, his parent will have been informed about it
- e. We do not use the future perfect tense in adverbial clauses of time :
When the examinations have ended, we will take a trip
I will lend you the book when I have finished reading it.
12. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
– On February 20, next year, we will have been living here for six months.
– Tomorrow my uncle will have been staying at the hospital for three weeks.
13. The Past Future Tense
- a. To express an action which will be done in the past
I wanted to know where you would go
You told him last month that I should come to his party
- b. To express a past habitual action
I would get up at four everyday
In those days, when the fisherman had no luck, they would pawn their goods to eat.
14. The Past Future Continuous Tense
To express an action which is being done at the past time.
– I should be leaving this University at this time the following month.
– He asked me what I should be doing tomorrow evening.
15. The Past Future Perfect Tense
Menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang akan telah selesai pada waktu tertentu yang akan datang di masa lampau.
– You hoped that you would have finished reading this book before you bought a new one
– I thought you would have gone to school by now. (saya mengira kau telah akan berangkat ke sekolah sekarang)
– I was sure that I should have finished this book two months ahead of schedule. (saya yakin saya akan telah menyelesaikan buku ini dua bulanlebih cepat dari pada waktu yang telah ditentukan)
16. The Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang akan datang dlam bentuk waktu selesai dimasa lampau dimana kegiatan tersebut sedang dilakukan.
– By the end of December she would have been working in the company for two years.
– They would have been studying French for 5 years by Christmas next year.
TIME EXPRESSION / ADVERB OF TIME
|NO.||TENSES||ADVERB OF TIME|
|The Simple Present Tense
The Present Continuous Tense
The Present Perfect Tense
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
The Simple Past Tense
The Past Continuous Tense
The Past Perfect Tense
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The Simple Future Tense
The Future Continuous Tense
The Future Perfect Tense
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
The Past Future Tense
The Past Future Continuous Tense
The Past Future Perfect Tense
The Past Future Perfect Continuous T
|Always (= all of time), usually (= most of the time), often (=much of the time), sometimes (= some of the time), seldom (=almost never), never (= not at any time) Now, at this moment, right now, current time
Already, just, yet, for…., since ….
For ……., since ……..
Yesterday, last ….., just now, ….. ago
While + PCT, when + Past Tense
Past Perfect + before + Simple Past
Simple Past + after + Past Perfect
Before / after + Past Tense + PPCT + for / since …..
PPCT + for / since …….+before/after/when +Past Tense
Tomorrow, to night, soon, next ……
This time tomorrow (saat ini besok)
This time ……, at …….. next week, etc
By the end of the week (menjelang minggu dpn)
By this time next month
By ………+ adv. of time of Future Tense
Next… /tomorrow / by the end of + FPCT + for/ since …………
PFT + Past Tense
At this time the following month, etc
PFPT + Past Perfect Tense
By the end of / by tomorrow + PFPCT + for / since
PFPCT + for/since + by the end of / by tomorrow