PATTERN: S + modal + have + verb3 + object
- Should I ought tol + have + verb3 = seharusnya telah (suggestion/obligation)
Barry should have studied hard. (fact: He didn’t study)
He ought not to have wasted his time. (fact: He wasted his time)
- b. Could + have + verb3 (capability/ability)
He could have passed the examination. (fact: He did not pass the examination)
He could have taken it by mistake. (fact: He didn‘t take it by mistake)
We could have gone to the movies, but we decided to stay home. (we had the opportunity to go out, but we didn’t).
Why didn’t Tom apply for the job? He could have gotten it. (he had the ability to get it)
He was lucky when he fell off the ladder. He could have hurt himself. (it was possible to happen but it didn’t)
- c. May/might + have + verb3 = mungkin (possibility)
He did not speak to us; he might have become angry.
A: I wonder why Jill didn’t come to the meeting.
B: She might not have known about it. (=perhaps she didn’t know)
- Must have + have + verb3 = kepastian (conclusion/inference)
The lights went out, the electricity must have been off.
The opera star fainted, she must have been ill.
We went to Roy’s house last night and rang the doorbell. There was no answer. He must have gone out. (otherwise he would have answered)
The phone rang, but I didn’t hear it. I must have been a sleep.