- Positive Sentence, Use: so, too
Pattern: S1 and S2 + aux. + too
S1 and so + aux. + S2
- Mrs Ani is a nurse and Miss Ita is a nurse
Mrs Ani is a nurse and Miss Ita is too
Mrs Ani is a nurse and so is Miss Ita
- I have finished the work and he has too
I have finished the work and so has he.
- I have a new car and he does too.
- She read novel and I did too
- He’s been to Boston and my father has too
- 2. Negative Sentence , Use : either, neither
S1 and S2 + aux. not + either
S1 and neither + aux. + S2
- He won’t come. I won’t come
He won’t come and I won’t either.
He won’t come and neither will I.
- Amir never comes late to school and neither does Adi
- They didn’t attend the meeting and I didn’t either.
NOTE: Alan can play violin. Rony can’t play violin
=Alan can play violin but Rony can’t.
Concord / agreement
- 1. Both ……… and
Heny is in the third year. Sinta is in the third year.
Both Heny and Sinta are in the third year.
She saw the film and I saw the film.
Both she and I saw the film.
Sherly looks cheerful. Sara looks cheerful.
Both Sherly and Sara look cheerful.
- 2. Either …….or
Either she or we aren’t absent from the meeting.
=Either we or she isn’t absent from the meeting.
Rini forgot where she put her new dictionary.
It’s either in the living room or in her bedroom
- 3. Neither …….nor
He isn’t a teacher. He isn’t a doctor.
=He is neither a teacher nor a doctor.
He doesn’t say rude things. They don’t say rude things.
=Neither he nor they say rude things
=Neither they nor he says rude things
- 4. And
I will write a letter. I will write a short story.
=I will write a letter and a short story.
- 5. But
I don’t see Adam. David sees Adam
=I don’t see Adam but David does.
We can answer the question. They can’t answer the question.
=we can answer the question but they can’t.
- 6. Or
You can go by bus. You can go by taxi.
=You can go by bus or by taxi.
- 7. Whether ………. or not
I will give you the money although you need it or you don’t need it.
=I will give you the money whether you need it or not.
I wear raincoat whether it is raining or not.
= I wear raincoat regardless of the weather.
- 8. Not only ……. but also
You will meet the president. You’ll get some gifts.
= You will not only meet the president but also get some gifts.
- 9. So that
Mr. Miller is too busy to leave his office
=Mr. Miller is so busy that he can’t leave his office.
=Mr. Miller is such a busy man that he can’t leave his office.
My brother is so busy that I rarely meet him.
He dresses so quickly that he puts his boots on the wrong feet.
I prefer tea to coffee
Tom prefers driving to traveling by train.
Tom prefers to drive rather than travel by train.
I’d rather stay at home than go to the movie.
She likes watching TV better than listening to the radio.
- 11. Because
Mary wears raincoat because it is raining.
=Mary wears raincoat because of the rain.
- 12. In order to/that
She studies hard in order to pass the examination.
She turned the radio down in order not to disturb her neighbor.
He worked hard in order that he earned enough money.
John didn’t wear raincoat although it was raining.
=John didn’t wear raincoat in spite of/ despite the rain.
Neither of + Verb / auxiliary (singular)
- The nouns like: people, public, cattle, police, clergy, are used with plural verbs:
The people of Switzerland are called ‘Swiss’
- When collective nouns like: family, team, audience, committee, government, etc are used to mean a single unit, they take a singular verb. But when the words are used to mean individuals, they take a plural verb:
The team is practicing hard for the next match.
The team are going to buy their own equipment for the match.
- Some words are plural in form but singular in number, used with singular verbs:
Economics is an interesting subject.
Measles is caused by virus.
Billiards is an indoor game.
The New York Times is a daily newspaper in New York.