(a) To show addition
Words that connect words or clauses: ‘and’, as well as’, ‘both’, ‘not only’, ‘not only but also’, ‘and’, besides’, ‘moreover’, furthermore’, ‘also’:
The chair is soft and comfortable.
The chair is soft as well as comfortable.
Both the boys and the girls wish to go home now.
Not only did he lose his watch, he lost his wallet also.
They are not only noisy but also rude.
We can’t help her; besides, we don’t know her very well.
It was raining very heavily; moreover, night was approaching.
We cannot afford it; furthermore, we have some debts to pay.
If you give one to her, you must also give one to me.
(b) To show contrast
We use : ‘but’, ‘yet’, ‘still’, ‘however’, nevertheless’, ‘though’, although’, ‘though’ The man is old, but he is in excellent health.
He is clever, but he cannot be trusted.
He had had a second helping; yet/however/nevertheless, he was still hungry.
She went to sleep early last night; still, she felt sleepy today.
They helped him a lot; yet, he was not satisfied.
They did not feel discouraged although they had lost the game.
Even though most of the members were absent, the meeting went on as usual.
(c) To show choice / estimation
We use: ‘or’, ‘either or’, ‘neither nor’ :
He has to pay the fine or be jailed for a year. (Choice)
The nearest post office is about eighty or ninety km from here. (Estimation)
Either Mr. Burns or his wife is in the shop in the morning.
Neither he nor she is prepared to act as the mediator in the quarrel between them
(d) To show result
We use: ‘so’, ‘then’, ‘therefore’, consequently’, ‘such….that’, ‘thus’, ‘accordingly’, ‘hence’, ‘as a result’:
The bread was stale, so she threw it away.
If you do wrong, then you must admit it.
He broke the law; consequently, he was arrested and tried in court.
Conjunction Introducing Clauses
(e) Introducing adverb clauses of time
We use: ‘when’, ‘while’, ‘as’, ‘till’, ‘until’, ‘before’, ‘after’, ‘as soon as’, ‘since’
I will come as soon as I am ready.
They told me when I could have my passport renewed.
(f) Introducing adverb clauses of place: ‘where’, wherever’
I will find it wherever it is.
(g) Introducing adverb clauses of reason: ‘because’, ‘since’, ‘for’, ‘as’
(h) Introducing adverb clauses of result
We use: ‘so.. .that’, ‘therefore’, ‘such that’, ‘as a result’, ‘so’, ‘consequently’
(i) Introducing adverb clauses of manner: ‘as’, ‘as if, ‘as though’
She started at me as if he had never seen before.
(j) Introducing adverb clauses of purpose: ‘so that’, ‘in order that’
They worked late so that they could do everything.
(k) Introducing adverb clauses of condition:
We use: ‘if’, ‘unless’, as long as’, ‘provided that’, ‘on condition that’, ‘supposing that’
Mr. Drew will lend you the money, on condition that you pay him the principal p1 us the interest at the end of the month.
(l) Introducing adverb clauses of concession :
We use: ‘though’, although’, ‘even if, ‘even though’, ‘however’
(m) Introducing adverb clauses of comparison: ‘as…..as’, ‘so…. as’, ‘than’
We cannot be so early as you.
The book was better than she said it was.
CONJUNCTION IN DETAIL
- 1. Coordinating Conjunction
Untuk menghindari pengulangan dalam satu kalimat dengan menggabungkan subject, predikat, object, adverb, atau complement.
A. Menggabungkan dengan mensejajarkan: AND
And: dan ……
a. Sila and Sali went to the market for some vegetables.
b. Mr. Boy is very kind and generous.
c. He went to the music centre and bought some cassettes.
d. She spoke loudly and clearly.
As well as: dan juga ….
a. Sherly as well as her mother usually gets up at 4 in the morning.
Besides: dan disamping itu …..
a. Besides some stamps, I bought some envelopes.
b. Alfa is very kind, besides he is very generous.
Both …..and; baik…… maupun ……..
a. Both Erlina and Astri went to wedding party last night.
b. Agnes likes both jogging and swimming very much.
Moreover: dan bahkan ….
a. Adri is very clever, moreover he is very helpful.
b. Julia can sing very well, moreover she can dance very beautifully.
Likewise: dan seperti halnya …..
a. Rosa, likewise her mother, is very kind to everyone.
b. Likewise her boyfriend, Tamara is very faithful.
Furthermore: dan lebihjauh lagi …….
a. Cangar is very cold now, furthermore the place is very humid.
b. Surabaya is very crowded, furthermore the place is very noisy.
Not only ……but also: tidak hanya……. tetapi juga …….
a. Sholy can speak not only English but also Chinese.
B. Menggabungkan dengan menunjukkan pertentangan: BUT
But: tetapi …..
a. He wants to buy a novel but he doesn’t have enough money.
Despite / in spite of: meskipun …
a. Despite his illness, he keeps on working.
b. That young beautiful lady has a lot of money in spite of not working hard.
Despite / in spite of the fact that : walaupun kenyataannya menunjukkan ……
a. In spite of the fact that the weather is very cold, I don’t want to wear sweater.
b. Despite the fact that the day was growing dark, they didn’t switch on the light.
Though, although, eventhough: walaupun ……
a. Though the price of Headphones is very high, many people are curious to buy them.
b. Although the government has launched a campaign of No Smoking Time, many young
people go on smoking.
c. Even though the day was raining very hard, Charlie insist on going to the beach.
Nevertheless: walau begitu ………
a. The life that woman is burdened to much with debts, nevertheless she is still joyful.
b. The price of English books is very expensive, nevertheless many students are curious
to buy them.
Whereas: sedangkan ………..
a. Sinta is like her mother, whereas her sister is like her father.
Yet: tetapi, walupun demikian ……….
a. Sania has just taken the “Conversation class” for three months, yet she has been very
fluent in English.
b. His house is not so far from the school, yet Atong is often late for the class.
On the other hand: namun begitu (di lain pihak), sedangkan ……
a. The decision has been made, on the other hand it has not been offred to the members.
C. Menggabnngkan dengan menunjukkan makna pilihan: OR
Or: atau ….
a. You may study or watch TV, but you may not do both.
Either ……or…….: atau …….atau …….
a. Either you or your sister is allowed to move into this new room.
b. Either she or we aren’t absent from the meeting = Either we or she isn’t absent from
Neither……. nor……: baik……… ataupun……. tidak ….
a. During the interview, you can neither smoke nor read a newspaper.
b. Neither he nor they say rude things = Neither they nor he says rude things.
Otherwise: jika tidak ……..
a. You have to pay the school fee on time, otherwise you will be discarded from the class
Or else: atau bahkan……. , apalagi ……..
a. You cannot open that bag or else take what is inside of it.
b. You may join the first seminar or else the whole days.
- 2. Subordinating Conjunction.
Untuk menggabungkan anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (main clause) dalam complex sentence.
- Yang menunjukkan waktu (time)
After Shopia eats breakfast, she goes to school.
Mr. Wong doesn’t want to get married before he buys a car and a house of his own.
When: saat mana, ketika, apabila
When you wake up in the middle of night, you may pray to God for a better life now and then.
During: selama …….(diikuti phrase benda yang menunjukkan waktu)
During the summer, a lot of beautiful young ladies go sunbathing in the seashore.
As : pada saat
As I was walking home from school, it began to rain.
Please stay with me until the end of life.
As soon as : segera sesudah
As soon as it stopped raining, we left the place.
As long as : sepanjang, seberapa
I will love you as long as you are believable.
By the time (that): hingapada saat, menjelang… …
I will have finished the work by the time you come here.
Since : sejak, selama, mumpung, selagi
Aty hasn’t met me again since she said good bye several years ago.
You have to work hard since you are still young.
The first tim: pertama kali
The first time I went to Jakarta, I spent the night in a small hotel.
While : sambil, sembari
While Fony is watching TV, she is reading a magazine
- B. Yang menunujukkan tempat (place)
Mr. boy plans to go to where he used to have a date with his girlfriend.
In which: dimana
Sit in the middle of the garden in which you can enjoy fresh air and listen to some birds singing.
Wherever: dimana saja, kemana saja
Wherever the seminar is held, I will come and join it.
- C. Yang menunjukkan tujuan (purpose)
For : untuk, dalam rangka ………
You have to come to class for studying not for chatting.
So that:: sehingga, agar
You have to get very early in the morning, so that you will not be late for the class.
In order that: agar supaya
You have to read English books a lot in order that you can increase your vocabulary.
In the effort of : dalam rangka
Lots of students take extra classes in the effort of getting better achievement.
In the hope that: dengan harapan bahwa
In the hope that they can get married soon, the couple work very hard for the preparation.
- D. Yang menunjukkan alasan (reason), sebab akibat (cause and effect)
Because the entrance test will be held next month, high school graduates have to study more seriously.
Because of=because (lebih diangab sebagai preposition, diikuti noun phrase.
Because of the cold weather, Firda is wearing a winter coat.
Due to — because of (lebih dianggab preposition)
Due to the next month’s test, many students take extra classes.
Due to the fact that: dikarenakan kenyataan bahwa
Due to the fact that the weather is cold, Firgo is wearing a winter coat.
Such… .that…….: begitu……. sehingga ……..
Fai-ida is such a beautiful lady that a lot of young men want to get closer to her.
So …. that…. : begitu…….. sehingga….
The young lady performed beautifully on the stage that all the audiences were very amazed.
As : mengingat
As you haven’t visited the place before, I would like to invite you to go there with me.
For : karena
I can’t live without you for I have nobody else but you.
since; selagi .
Since Sunday is a free day: tle wojJefs are reluctant to come to work.
Owing to the fact that: dengan alasan bahwa
Adan is often late for the class owing to the fact that he has to go by bus.
Now that: dikarenakan sekarang
Now that the office is closed, everyone can go back home.
- E. Yang menunjukkan konsekuensi (consequence)
You are not too friendly. Consequently, you don’t have too many friends.
Accordingly: dengan alasan tersebut
We have too much time for a break. Accordingly, we can have some meals at the café nearby.
So : sehingga
Sinta got up late this morning so she was late for the class.
As a result: akibatnya
The young lady eats meat too much. As a result, she is too fat.
Therefore: oleh karenanya
It began to rain. Therefore, I used my new umbrella.
Thus : dengan begitu
You have to practice English much. Thus, you will be able to master it within a short time.
Then : lalu, kemudian
They agreed to love each other. Then, they plan to get married one day.
- Yang menunjukkan syarat (condition)
If :jika, andaikan
Only if: andaikan saja,hanya jika
Only if it rains, the competition will be canceled.
Otherwise: jika tidak –
I always eat breakfast. Otherwise, I get hungry during the class.
Or else = otherwise
You must be faithful to Rosi, or else she will leave you forever.
As if = as though: seolah-olah
Even if : meskpun
Reny is brilliant. Even if she doesn’t study harder, I believe she will pass the exam.
Wishing that: dengan berharap bahwa
Wishing that she can buy a new mercy, Aty makes a new business.
In case (that) : kalau-kalau
I will stay home all day in case that you comes to see me.
In the event that — in case
Provided that / providing that . kalau saja
Provided that the test is started on Monday, the students will have to review the lessons.
Rani will marry her boyfriend providing that the condition allows the marriage.
Unless= if……. not : jika…… tidak
I will go jogging unless it rains tomorrow.
- Yang menunjukkan makna pertentangan (contradiction)
Even though: meskipun
Even though the day was very hot, Rini wore her new sweater.
Although =though: walaupun
in spite of the fact that: meski kenyataan menunjukkan bahwa
In spite of the fact that the boy is from a poor family, he is not inferior and he always strive for the best in many things.
Nevertheless: namun demikian
This dictionary is very expensive. Nevertheless, I am going to buy it now.
1. Because, as, since, for = sebab, karena
2. Nevertheless = namun demikian
3. However = meskipun, akan tetapi
4. Consequently = sebagai akibatnya
5. Otherwise = jika tidak
6. Whereas = sedangkan
7. Still / yet = namun
8. Beside =disamping
9. Until = sampai
10. After = sesudah
11. Before = sebelum
12. as, when = ketika
13. So that = sehingga
14. Despite / in spite of = meskipun
15. As long as = sepanjang
16. As well as = dan /juga
17. While = sementara, ketika
18. In order to = untuk, agar supaya
19. Accordingly = therefore = karena itu
20. After all = bagaimanapun juga
21. Then = maka
23. Due to = because of
24. Regardless = tanpa memperdulikan
25. All the same = namun demikian
26. Hence = karena alasan itu, dengan
demikian, mulai saat ini
27. In case = kalau-kalau
28. In the mean time, mean while =
29. Moreover = furthermore = lagi pula
30. Namely = yaitu
31. On the contrary = on the other hand =
32. Say = taruhlah
33. Both and … = baik maupun
34. Either or = yang … .atau yang
35. Neither nor = baik … .maupun tidak.
36. Not only but also = tidak hanya tetapi
37. Unless = kecuali kalau, kalau tidak
38. Provided = asal(kan) , asal saja
39. In addition = dan lagi, tambahan pula,
40. Lest = agar tidak, kalau