ADJECTIVE CLAUSE / RELATIVE PRONOUN


• Person who verb
• Person whom subject
• Noun which verb/subject
• Person I noun whose part or possession of

Examples:

  1. I know the man. The man helped you.
    =I know the man who helped you.
  2. I know the girl. You met her at Sanrio yesterday.
    = I know the girl (whom/that) you met at Sanrio yesterday.
  3. They bought a car. It cost Rp. 10 million.
    = They bought a car which/that cost Rp. 10 million.
  4. The film wasn’t very good. We saw it last night.
    = The film we saw last night wasn’t very good.
  5. We saw the people. Their car has been stolen.
    = We saw the people whose car has stolen.
  6. The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed there.
    = The hotel where (in which) we stayed wasn’t very clean.
  7. The ladder on which I was standing began to slip
    The ladder which’ that I was standing on began to slip.
    = The ladder I was standing on began to slip.
  8. The man from whom I bought it told me to oil it.
    = The man whom(who) I bought it from told me to oil t.

NOTE:

  1. Defining Relative Clauses describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to the clear understanding of the noun:

The man who told me this refused to give me his name.
‘Who told me this’ is the relative pronoun. If we omit this, it is not clear what man we are talking about. Notice that there is no coma between a noun and defining relative clause

  1. Non-Defining Relative Clauses.

These are placed after nouns which are definite already. They do not therefore define the noun, but merely add something to it by giving some more information about it. Unlike defining relative clauses, they are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion, they separated from their noun by commas:

Mary, with whom I drove home yesterday, has a Rolls Royce.
His old car, which breaks down every few kilometers, is dearer to him than his wife.

REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES


An adjective clause can be made shorter into a verbal adjective phrase or one-word verbal
adjective.

Adjective clause                       : Doctors couldn’t save the man who was dying of cancer.
Verbal adjective phrase            : Doctors couldn’t save the man dying of cancer.
One-word verbal adjective       : Doctors couldn’t save the dying man.

Adjective Clause Reduced Adjective Clause
  1. The man who is walking in the rain will get sick
  2. The chair which is next to mine is occupied.
  3. The law which had been passed by  Congress was vetoed by the President
  4. The building which was being built when the earthquake struck, will be finished soon
The man walking in the rain will get sick

The chair next to mine is occupied

The law passed by Congress was vetoed by the President

The building being built when the earthquake struck will be finished soon

see also participle

POTENSIAL PROBLEMS:

  1. The subject may be added.

WRONG   : The student he having quit school, found a job.

RIGHT       : The student, having quit school, found a job.

  1. A to be form may be added.

WRONG   : The winner was ecstatic about the results, jumped up and down.

RIGHT       : The winner, ecstatic about the results, jumped up and down.

  1. The clause marker may be added

WRONG   : He was proud to see his grades which posted on the bulletin board.

RIGHT       : He was proud to see his grades posted on the bulletin board.
ADVERB CLAUSES

  1. Adverbial Clause of time, introduced by the conjunctions: when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since, etc.

She used to live in the rural village before she moved to Mojokerto.

Give him the message when he comes.

  1. Adverbial Clause of place, introduced by: where, wherever, as:
    Mary lives where she was born.
    As you come round the bend,
    you will find my house.
  1. Adverbial clause of reason, introduced by: because, since, as, for, etc:
    Since he had nothing to do, he went to the theatre.
  1. Adverbial Clause of purpose, introduced by: so that, in order that, lest, in case, etc:
    Tony study hard so that he would pass admission test.
    We kept the bad news from him lest he should have another heart attack.

  1. Adverbial Clause of concession, introduced by: though, although, even if, no matter what, however, whatever, etc.:
    Although it was raining, they went to the party.
    No matter how hard he tried, he could not beat his opponent.
  1. Adverbial Clause of condition, introduced by: if, provided that, on condition that, so long
    as, supposing that, unless, etc:
    We will not be able to answer the questions ff we do not read the text.
    Provided that you stay indoors, nothing will happen to you.
    What will you do supposing that you are locked inside your room?
  1. Adverbial Clause of result, introduced by: so, so…………. that, such…………. that:
    She was so upset that she cried
  1. Adverbial Clause of Comparison, introduced by: as ……as, so …..as, such ………as, than, etc:
    They were not so good as we thought that they were
  1. Adverbial Clause of manner, introduced by: as, as if, as though, etc:
    She laughed as though she was mad.
    Please do as you are told.

Reduced Adverb Clauses


Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause can be made shorter into a phrase or a word. Look at the following examples:

Adverb Clause Reduce adverb clause
While she was singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes

Although the chair was broken into pieces, it is valuable

Because he was late, he had to report to the supervisor

When he found the place, he could not hide his excitement

Though she was angry, she tried to smile

While singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.

Although broken into pieces, the chair is valuable.

Being late, he had to report to the supervisor.

Finding the place, he could not hide his excitement.

Though angry, she tried to smile

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

  1. The subject may be added.
    WRONG   : While she singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.
    RIGHT       : While singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.
  1. A to he may be added
    WRONG   : Daniel waited, was getting more and more nervous until the moment arrive
    RIGHT       : Daniel waited, getting more and more nervous until the moment arrived.
  1. The subject may not be the same.
    WRONG   : The alarm going off, Victor got out of bed.
    RIGHT       : Hearing the alarm go off, Victor got out of bed.
  1. An incorrect participle may be used.
    WRONG   : Listened to the speech, the audience was restless
    RIGHT       : Listening to the speech, the audience was restless.

NOUN CLAUSES

  1. a. As subject of a verb:

What he decided makes the members happy.

That he passed the exam surprises us.

  1. b. As object of a verb:

I don’t know where she lives.
The principal gave whoever got the best marks a present.
I asked him how he went home.

  1. c. As complement of a verb:

This is where I work.
The fact is that she has never been overseas before.

  1. d. As the object of a preposition:

He worried about what I had told him yesterday.
He is satisfied with what he has got.

Advertisements

About englishcyber4u

1 want to have useful life for people around me..and 1 want to write till 1 die..

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s