ADJECTIVE CLAUSE / RELATIVE PRONOUN
• Person who verb
• Person whom subject
• Noun which verb/subject
• Person I noun whose part or possession of
- I know the man. The man helped you.
=I know the man who helped you.
- I know the girl. You met her at Sanrio yesterday.
= I know the girl (whom/that) you met at Sanrio yesterday.
- They bought a car. It cost Rp. 10 million.
= They bought a car which/that cost Rp. 10 million.
- The film wasn’t very good. We saw it last night.
= The film we saw last night wasn’t very good.
- We saw the people. Their car has been stolen.
= We saw the people whose car has stolen.
- The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed there.
= The hotel where (in which) we stayed wasn’t very clean.
- The ladder on which I was standing began to slip
The ladder which’ that I was standing on began to slip.
= The ladder I was standing on began to slip.
- The man from whom I bought it told me to oil it.
= The man whom(who) I bought it from told me to oil t.
- Defining Relative Clauses describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to the clear understanding of the noun:
The man who told me this refused to give me his name.
‘Who told me this’ is the relative pronoun. If we omit this, it is not clear what man we are talking about. Notice that there is no coma between a noun and defining relative clause
- Non-Defining Relative Clauses.
These are placed after nouns which are definite already. They do not therefore define the noun, but merely add something to it by giving some more information about it. Unlike defining relative clauses, they are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion, they separated from their noun by commas:
Mary, with whom I drove home yesterday, has a Rolls Royce.
His old car, which breaks down every few kilometers, is dearer to him than his wife.
REDUCED ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
An adjective clause can be made shorter into a verbal adjective phrase or one-word verbal
Adjective clause : Doctors couldn’t save the man who was dying of cancer.
Verbal adjective phrase : Doctors couldn’t save the man dying of cancer.
One-word verbal adjective : Doctors couldn’t save the dying man.
|Adjective Clause||Reduced Adjective Clause|
||The man walking in the rain will get sick
The chair next to mine is occupied
The law passed by Congress was vetoed by the President
The building being built when the earthquake struck will be finished soon
see also participle
- The subject may be added.
WRONG : The student he having quit school, found a job.
RIGHT : The student, having quit school, found a job.
- A to be form may be added.
WRONG : The winner was ecstatic about the results, jumped up and down.
RIGHT : The winner, ecstatic about the results, jumped up and down.
- The clause marker may be added
WRONG : He was proud to see his grades which posted on the bulletin board.
RIGHT : He was proud to see his grades posted on the bulletin board.
- Adverbial Clause of time, introduced by the conjunctions: when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since, etc.
She used to live in the rural village before she moved to Mojokerto.
Give him the message when he comes.
- Adverbial Clause of place, introduced by: where, wherever, as:
Mary lives where she was born.
As you come round the bend, you will find my house.
- Adverbial clause of reason, introduced by: because, since, as, for, etc:
Since he had nothing to do, he went to the theatre.
- Adverbial Clause of purpose, introduced by: so that, in order that, lest, in case, etc:
Tony study hard so that he would pass admission test.
We kept the bad news from him lest he should have another heart attack.
- Adverbial Clause of concession, introduced by: though, although, even if, no matter what, however, whatever, etc.:
Although it was raining, they went to the party.
No matter how hard he tried, he could not beat his opponent.
- Adverbial Clause of condition, introduced by: if, provided that, on condition that, so long
as, supposing that, unless, etc:
We will not be able to answer the questions ff we do not read the text.
Provided that you stay indoors, nothing will happen to you.
What will you do supposing that you are locked inside your room?
- Adverbial Clause of result, introduced by: so, so…………. that, such…………. that:
She was so upset that she cried
- Adverbial Clause of Comparison, introduced by: as ……as, so …..as, such ………as, than, etc:
They were not so good as we thought that they were
- Adverbial Clause of manner, introduced by: as, as if, as though, etc:
She laughed as though she was mad.
Please do as you are told.
Reduced Adverb Clauses
Like an adjective clause, an adverb clause can be made shorter into a phrase or a word. Look at the following examples:
|Adverb Clause||Reduce adverb clause|
|While she was singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes
Although the chair was broken into pieces, it is valuable
Because he was late, he had to report to the supervisor
When he found the place, he could not hide his excitement
Though she was angry, she tried to smile
|While singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.
Although broken into pieces, the chair is valuable.
Being late, he had to report to the supervisor.
Finding the place, he could not hide his excitement.
Though angry, she tried to smile
- The subject may be added.
WRONG : While she singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.
RIGHT : While singing the anthem, she had tears in her eyes.
- A to he may be added
WRONG : Daniel waited, was getting more and more nervous until the moment arrive
RIGHT : Daniel waited, getting more and more nervous until the moment arrived.
- The subject may not be the same.
WRONG : The alarm going off, Victor got out of bed.
RIGHT : Hearing the alarm go off, Victor got out of bed.
- An incorrect participle may be used.
WRONG : Listened to the speech, the audience was restless
RIGHT : Listening to the speech, the audience was restless.
- a. As subject of a verb:
What he decided makes the members happy.
That he passed the exam surprises us.
- b. As object of a verb:
I don’t know where she lives.
The principal gave whoever got the best marks a present.
I asked him how he went home.
- c. As complement of a verb:
This is where I work.
The fact is that she has never been overseas before.
- d. As the object of a preposition:
He worried about what I had told him yesterday.
He is satisfied with what he has got.